What is the Difference between Depakote ER and Depakote DR?

Depakote ER is an extended release pill, meaning you should only have to take it once a day, versus, Depakote DR which is delayed release and taken multiple times a day. Delayed release is a coated pill that all medication is released when the coating dissolves. The coating helps reduce upset stomach that can be experienced with the regular Depakote.


Depakote (divalproex sodium) ER is a medicine used to treat seizure disorders, migraine headaches, and certain mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder. The “ER” part of the name stands for “extended release,” meaning the contents of the medicine are released slowly, not all at once, after you take the medicine. So, Depakote ER should be taken just once a day.

Depakote ER has been confused with Depakote (no “ER” at the end of the name). This is a different form of the same medicine, but it needs to be taken more frequently than once a day. Depakote is considered a “delayed-release” medicine. That is, after you take it, it doesn’t dissolve as fast as traditional tablets. But when it dissolves, it releases all the medicine at the same time. What makes it a “delayed-release” medicine is a special coating called an “enteric coating.” This coating causes the medicine to dissolve in your intestines rather than your stomach. Enteric coatings are used when the medicine is irritating to the stomach.

Sometimes doctors refer to the delayed-release Depakote as Depakote “EC”—for enteric coating—or Depakote “DR” —for delayed release. When doctors use these unnecessary abbreviations (EC and DR) on prescriptions, pharmacists may think the doctor intended to write “ER.” They may misinterpret the prescription as Depakote ER . Also, the terms “delayed release” and “extended release” seem very similar (although they are not, as explained above). Pharmacists have also misheard prescriptions called into the pharmacy for “Depakote DR” as “Depakote ER.

Depending on which form is mixed up with the other, an error could either cause serious side effects or fail to treat the person’s condition. We recently received a report about an error in which a man received 1,500 mg of Depakote (delayed release) instead of Depakote ER (extended release). The man developed low blood pressure and couldn’t be awakened until 9 hours after taking the medicine. The full dose was released more rapidly than it would have been with the extended-release form of the medicine.

-> Here’s what you can do: To prevent mix-ups between Depakote and Depakote ER, be certain that you know which form of Depakote you are taking. Make sure you speak with the pharmacist and hear what you expect when the name of the drug is pronounced. Read the label on the prescription and the drug information leaflet. If you are on Depakote ER, it should say that on both the label and leaflet you get, and the medicine should look like the pictures as seen in the PDF version. Also, please read the new warning that FDA has issued (in the right column of the PDF version) about possible birth defects when taking this medicine


Temperature of a Healthy Human (Body Temperature)

Temperature of a Healthy Human (Body Temperature)

The Physics Factbook
Edited by Glenn Elert — Written by his students
An educational, Fair Use website

topic index | author index | special index

Bibliographic Entry Result
(w/surrounding text)
Campbell, Neil A. Biology. 3rd ed. California: Benjamin Cummings, 1987: 790. “… a human can maintain its ‘internal pond’ at a constant temperature of 37 °C” 37 °C
“Temperature, Body.” World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: Field Enterprises, 1996. “… a healthy, resting adult human being is 98.6 °F (37.0 °C)” 37.0 °C
Simmers, Louise. Diversified Health Occupations. 2nd ed. Canada: Delmar, 1988: 150-151. “… the normal range for body temperature is 97 to 100 degrees fahrenheit or 36.1 to 37.8 degrees celsius” 36.1–37.8 °C
Eisman, Louis. Biology and Human Progress. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1972: 125. “… fairly constant temperature of 98.6 degrees” 37.0 °C
McGovern, Celeste. “Snatched From an Icy Death.” Alberta Report/Western Report. Academic Abstracts: United Western Communications, 1994: 2. “… core body temperature … the normal 37 °C” 37.0 °C

The normal core body temperature of a healthy, resting adult human being is stated to be at 98.6 degrees fahrenheit or 37.0 degrees celsius. Though the body temperature measured on an individual can vary, a healthy human body can maintain a fairly consistent body temperature that is around the mark of 37.0 degrees celsius.

The normal range of human body temperature varies due to an individuals metabolism rate, the higher (faster) it is the higher the normal body temperature or the slower the metabolic rate the lower the normal body temperature. Other factors that might affect the body temperature of an individual may be the time of day or the part of the body in which the temperature is measured at. The body temperature is lower in the morning, due to the rest the body received, and higher at night after a day of muscular activity and after food intake.

Body temperature also varies at different parts of the body. Oral temperatures, which are the most convenient type of temperature measurement, is at 37.0 °C. This is the accepted standard temperature for the normal core body temperature. Axillary temperatures are an external measurement taken in the armpit or between two folds of skin on the body. This is the longest and most inaccurate way of measuring body temperature, the normal temperature falls at 97.6 °F or 36.4 °C. Rectal temperatures are an internal measurement taken in the rectum, which fall at 99.6 °F or 37.6 °C. It is the least time consuming and most accurate type of body temperature measurement, being an internal measurement. But it is definitely, by far, not the most comfortable method to measure the body temperature of an individual.

Lena Wong — 1997

Bibliographic Entry Result
(w/surrounding text)
Mackowiak, P. A., Wasserman, S. S., and Levine, M. M. A Critical Appraisal of 98.6 Degrees F, the Upper Limit of the Normal Body Temperature, and Other Legacies of Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich. Journal of the American Medical Association. 268, 12 (23-30 September 1992): 1578-80. “Our findings conflicted with Wunderlich’s in that 36.8 degrees C (98.2 degrees F) rather than 37.0 degrees C (98.6 degrees F) was the mean oral temperature of our subjects …. Thirty-seven degrees centigrade (98.6 degrees F) should be abandoned as a concept relevant to clinical thermometry ….” 36.8 °C
“Fever: finding the right temp.” Nursing 93. 23 (June 1993): 82. [Abstract Source: FirstSearch. H.W. Wilson. 1997.] “Abstract: A recent study of body temperature in 148 healthy adults revealed that only 8 percent of 700 readings were “normal”, i.e., 98.6 °F or 37 °C. In addition, diurnal, sex, and racial differences were observed. It is suggested that a feverish state may not be implied unless the body temperature exceeds 99.9 °F or 37.7 °C.” not 37 °C
Mackowiak PA, Worden G. Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich and the evolution of clinical thermometry. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 18, 3 (March 1994): 458-67. [Find this paper! Not just the abstract.] [Find it!]
Cutnell, John D. & Kenneth W. Johnson. Physics. 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 1995: 392. “What is your normal body temperature? It’s probably not 98.6 °F, the oft-quoted average that was determined in the nineteenth century. A recent study has reported an average temperature of 98.2 °F.” 36.8 °C
Shoemaker, Allen L. What’s Normal? Temperature, Gender, and Heart Rate. Journal of Statistics Education. 4, 2 (1996). “One population mean that students all ‘know’ is the mean normal body temperature of 98.6 degrees F. What is surprising is that recent medical research has posited that the mean normal temperature is really 98.2 degrees F!” 36.8 °C
[Shoemaker supplies text files consisting of body temperature and heart rate data for 65 men and 65 women. This appears to be Mackowiak’s data from the 1992 paper in JAMA. The values reported to the right are the mean values ± the standard deviation.] 98.4±0.7 °F
(36.9±0.4 °C)

98.1±0.7 °F
(36.7±0.4 °C)

Vital Signs. Family Internet [dead website]. Applied Medical Informatics, 1996.
Age Temperature (°F)
0–3 month 99.4
3–6 month 99.5
6 month–1 year 99.7
1–3 year 99.0
3–5 year 98.6
5–9 year 98.3
9–13 year 98.0
> 13 year 97.8–99.1
36.6–37.3 °C
Cox, Paul. Glossary of Mathematical Mistakes [dead website]. 1998. [Citation of: Dewdney, A. K., 200% of Nothing: An Eye Opening Tour Through the Twists and Turns of Math Abuse and Innumeracy. New York: Wiley, 1993.] “For decades it was thought that the normal body temperature was 98.6 °F. This number was calculated from a study in Germany which reported normal at 37 °C. What was not known was that this number was an average rounded to the nearest degree. In other words it was only accurate to two significant digits, not the three we have with 98.6. Scientists today know that normal is actually 98.2 plus or minus 0.6, that is to say anything in the range of 97.6° to 98.8° should be considered normal.” 36.4–37.1 °C
Sund-Levander, Märtha; Christina Forsberg and Lis Karin Wahren. Normal oral, rectal, tympanic and axillary body temperature in adult men and women: a systematic literature review. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. Vol. 16 No. 2 (June 2002): 122. “When summarizing studies with strong or fairly strong evidence the range for oral temperature was 33.2–38.2 °C, rectal: 34.4–37.8 °C, tympanic: 35.4– 37.8 °C and axillary: 35.5–37.0 °C. The range in oral temperature for men and women, respectively, was 35.7–37.7 and 33.2–38.1 °C, in rectal 36.7–37.5 and 36.8–37.1 °C, and in tympanic 35.5–37.5 and 35.7–37.5 °C.” [see table below]

I vaguely remember hearing that the oft-quoted healthy human body temperature of 98.6 degrees fahrenheit was a “factoid”– a statement treated as factual that has, in fact, never been verified. I have sent students out in search of real research on this matter, but they have all come up negative. It is a surprisingly difficult assignment. Source after source faithfully states that the temperature of a healthy human body is 98.6 °F or 37 °C — no exceptions, end of story. The table above hints at the “truth”of the matter.

The first systematic measurements of human body temperature were performed by the German physician Carl Wunderlich. In 1861 he measured the temperatures of one million healthy individuals (a sample size that seems too large to be believed). The average value was reported as 37 degrees celsius. When converted this value becomes 98.6 degreed fahrenheit. So what’s the problem? Wunderlich’s value has only two significant figures while the converted value has three. The last digit (the “point six” at the end) should be regarded with great suspicion. Wunderlich’s converted value should really be stated as “ninety eight point something” if one is being honest.

In 1992 Mackowiak, Wasserman, and Levine measured the body temperatures of 65 men and 65 women and came up with a value of 36.8 °C (98.2 °F). You can do a statistical analysis of the data yourself. The numbers are available online at numerous websites including The Physics Factbook (see body-temperature.txt).

The findings of Sund-Levander, et al. are summarized in the table below.

men women overall
oral 35.7–37.7 °C 33.2–38.1 °C 33.2–38.2 °C
rectal 36.7–37.5 °C 36.8–37.1 °C 34.4–37.8 °C
typanic (ear canal) 35.5–37.5 °C 35.7–37.5 °C 35.4–37.8 °C
axillary (armpit) 35.5–37.0 °C

Editor’s Supplement — 1997, 1998, 2005, 2006

Bibliographic Entry Result
(w/surrounding text)
Pontius, Joan. Fahrenheit and Roemer. Metric System — Just Say No!

Author’s quote: “I got this from the Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 1971, the editor in chief was Charles Coulston Gillispie. The entry on Fahrenheit was written by a J. B. Gough.”

“When Fahrenheit began producing thermometers of his own, he graduatied [sic] them after what he believed were Roemer’s methods. The upper fixed point (labeled 22-1/2 degrees) was determined by placing the bulb of the thermometer in the mouth or armpit of a healthy male. The lower point (labeled 7-1/2 degrees) was determined by an ice and weater [sic] mixture. In addition, Fahrenheit divided each degree into four parts, so that the upper point became 90 degrees and the lower one 30 degrees. Later (in 1717) he moved the upper point to 98 degrees and the lower one to 32 degrees in order to eliminate ‘inconvenient and awkward fractions’. (ref- Middleton)” 90 °F

98 °F

“After Fahrenheit’s death it became standard practice to graduate Fahrenheit thermometers with the boiling point of water (set at 212 degrees) as the upper fixed point. As a result, normal body tmeperature [sic] became 98.6 dgrees [sic] instead of Fahrenheit’s 96 degrees.” 96 °F

98.6 °F

Pontius, Joan. Fahrenheit’s Thermometer. Metric System — Just Say No! “Fahrenheit wants to further calibrate his thermometer, but can’t figure out how do divide evenly by 7-1/2. He multiplies everything times four. So now body temperature is 90, and ice water is 30, and he can calibrate at 15, 45, and 60 degrees by halving the existing ranges.” 90 °F
“Fahrenheit wants to calibrate even more [sic], and realizes that if there were 64 divisions between body temperature and ice water, he could easily and accurately calibrate small divisions. Ice water then becomes 32, and body temperature becomes 96.” 96 °F

The information on the webpage cited above is a bit inconsistent (and loaded with spelling errors), but is one of the few with any information on the history of the Fahrenheit temperature scale. Apparently, Fahrenheit modeled his scale after one developed by Römer. He carried over many of Römer’s ideas on how the scale should be proportioned, namely the use of body temperature as a fixed point and that all meteorological temperatures should be positive. (Römer and Fahrenheit may have thought that temperatures below 0 °F would not happen.)

The current version of the Fahrenheit scale is, in my opinion, the best temperature scale for meteorology in temperate climates. If you think about it, most air temperatures in the mid latitudes are between 0 °F and 100 °F. It works so well that the average surface air temperature of the earth is very nearly in the middle of this range (something like 50 °F). That makes for a very efficient use of two digits.

Editor’s Supplement — 2000

Bibliographic Entry Result
(w/surrounding text)
Company in brief, Pharmacy Chain 36,6. “We are dedicated to helping our customers lead healthy and long lives. Our name reflects this commitment. 36.6 is the ideal body temperature in Centigrade for healthy adults and children. Pharmacy Chain 36.6 is equally committed to building a healthy, vibrant company which consistently delivers robust returns for our shareholders and employees.” 36.6 °C
Наша компания, Аптечная сеть 36,6. “Мы стремимся помогать людям вести здоровый образ жизни, способствовать их долголетию и благополучию. Само название «36,6» говорит о нашем призвании. «36,6» — показатель здоровой температуры тела у детей и взрослых. Для акционеров и для сотрудников Аптечная сеть 36,6 – здоровая и динамичная компания, источник прибыли и благосостояния.”
Keith. 98.6 [mp3]. Written by G. Fischoff & T. Powers. 1967. “Hey, ninety eight point six, it’s good to have you back again. oh,
Hey, ninety eight point six, her lovin’ is the medicine that
saaaved me,
Oh, I love my baaaby”
98.6 °F

Apparently, the unrealistically precise value 36.6 °C has acquired the rank of “ideal body temperature” in Russia. There’s even a pharmacy chain named 36,6.

And then there’s Keith — the two hit wonder whose 1967 hit single 98.6 sums up the connection between romance and physical health in a single number.

Editor’s Supplement — 2005

Related pages in The Physics Factbook:

External links to this page:

Blood pressure chart: What your reading means

Blood pressure chart: What your reading means

By Mayo Clinic staff

This blood pressure chart can help you figure out if your blood pressure is at a healthy level or if you’ll need to take some steps to improve your numbers.

Blood pressure readings fall into four general categories, ranging from normal to stage 2 hypertension (high blood pressure). The level of your blood pressure determines what kind of treatment you may need. To get an accurate blood pressure measurement, your doctor should evaluate your readings based on the average of two or more blood pressure readings on each of two office visits.

Here’s a look at the four blood pressure categories and what they mean for you. If your readings fall into two different categories, your correct blood pressure category is the higher category. For example, if your blood pressure reading is 125/95 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), you have stage 1 hypertension.

Top number (systolic) in mm Hg Bottom number (diastolic) in mm Hg Your category* What to do**
Below 120 and Below 80 Normal blood pressure Maintain or adopt a healthy lifestyle.
120-139 or 80-89 Prehypertension Maintain or adopt a healthy lifestyle.
140-159 or 90-99 Stage 1 hypertension Maintain or adopt a healthy lifestyle. If blood pressure goal isn’t reached in about six months, talk to your doctor about taking one or more medications.
160 or more or 100 or more Stage 2 hypertension Maintain or adopt a healthy lifestyle. Talk to your doctor about taking more than one medication.

*Ranges may be lower for children and teenagers. Talk to your child’s doctor if you’re concerned your child has high blood pressure.

**Note: These recommendations address high blood pressure as a single health condition. If you also have heart disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease or certain other conditions, you’ll need to treat your blood pressure more aggressively.

If your blood pressure is normal, maintaining or adopting a healthy lifestyle can prevent or delay the onset of high blood pressure or other health problems. If your blood pressure isn’t normal, a healthy lifestyle — oftentimes along with medication — can help bring it under control and reduce your risk of life-threatening complications.

Day 5: Vocabulary

1) niggardly means:

While this looks like a certain racial slur, it’s really just a way of saying meager, stingy or ungenerous. If you get a niggardly share of cake, it means someone gave you a very small piece.

This word is so close to a nasty racial slur that people have gotten in trouble for using it correctly. The words are not related in any way, they just sound alike. If you use the word niggardly, and someone is taken aback or offended, they either misheard you or don’t know what they are talking about. In this situation, aim for generosity. Don’t be niggardly with patience and understanding of their ignorance.

  • Yet was she by no means more niggardly in bestowing favour, than rapacious in seeking advantage.

    Burney, Fanny

  • He affected a niggardly moustache, and when he spoke full lips framed his words noticeably.

    Vance, Louis Joseph

  • With an equally niggardly hand are pecuniary grants and pensions distributed.

    Risk Allah, Habeeb

  • Nature has not pledged herself to be always niggardly and invariably to dilute the radium.

    Leblanc, Maurice

2) oration means:

An oration is a formal speech given in public. You might give the oration at the big party celebrating your grandparents’ 50th anniversary.

If you’re giving an oration, make sure you show up prepared. An oration is a speech that’s planned in advance rather than made up on the spot. It usually has a formal tone and is presented at a ceremony of some kind. You probably remember nervously sitting through an oration at your graduation ceremony, or you may have listened to a funeral oration celebrating the life of a famous person.

3) entitletitle

To entitle means to give someone a rank or right, like if your perfect attendance entitles you to free ice cream at lunch. A title is the name of something, like the title of a song you wrote about ice cream.

What about that song — is it entitled or titled “Free Ice Cream at Lunch”? There’s the rub. The short answer: use either one!

Entitle‘s main job is to give you a right, like when you’re entitled to free snacks because you’ve done something to deserve it. If you seem to have to right to everything, you’re just entitled. It also means to give something a title: Your song is entitled “Free Ice Cream at Lunch.” Check it out:

As all art collectors may, Mr. Lauder is entitled to deduct the full market value of artworks donated to museums. (New York Times)

Marjorie Ingall is worried about raising “entitled, bratty, ungrateful little weasels.” (New York Times)

A title is a noun — it’s the name of a book, a movie, or your new hit single about frozen treats. To name such a thing, is to title it, so yes it can also be a verb (hence the confusion). Here are some:

Their report was titled: “Euro zone: Thinking the unthinkable?” (Business Week)

The distributor gave him idiot-proof instructions, such as making sure pages had numbers and the title was on the spine. (Washington Post)

Sticklers want entitle tobe used only in the sense of giving someone a right, not for giving something a name. Bah! As for your song, if you jazz up the title, it might be entitled “Punk Rock Pickle Pink Ice Cream.” Or not. You can get rid of the entitled/titled problem by dropping both and letting the title speak for itself.

4) Coast means:

The noun coast describes the area where the land meets the sea — the seashore. When you’re mom says, “We’re going to the coast,” pack your bathing suit, because you’ll be near the ocean.

Coast also has a verb form that describes an effortless movement, like when you’re riding your bike down a hill and you don’t have to pedal at all. It can also be used figuratively to describe something that’s gained without much difficulty. You might coast to victory in the playoffs when your team wins 8-0 and is never threatened.

  • South Sinai’s Red Sea coast is a major tourism hub for Egypt.

    Reuters Feb 3, 2012

  • The federal government announced Thursday it’s moving forward with developing wind energy off Virginia’s coast.

    Washington Post Feb 2, 2012

  • The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management is looking for industry interest in wind development off the coasts of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia.

    Washington Post Feb 2, 2012

  • “There is a good deal of heavy timber right down the West Coast,” said Jimmy dryly.

    Bindloss, Harold

5) consolidation means:

In a tough economy, you see a lot of consolidation. This could be smaller businesses joining together or the consolidation of debt, as in combining three credit card payments into one. Anywhere there’s consolidation , there’s merging, joining, and combining.

You can see the word solid at the heart of consolidation, and its Latin roots will tell you that it means “to make solid together.” The goal of consolidation is really just that, to combine things in order to make them stronger or more beneficial. If you’re good at art and your friend is good at science, you may want to form a consolidation to take the science fair by storm.

  • The approach drove up mining shares from Sydney to London as investors anticipated a round of consolidation.

    BusinessWeek Feb 2, 2012

  • All this will lead to consolidation in two ways.

    Economist Feb 2, 2012

  • With greater consolidation and long term purchasing agreements higher gross margins could come back to the HDD industry and be here to stay.

    Forbes Jan 31, 2012

  • “The Russian government needs to carry out a major budget consolidation over time,” said Odd Per Brekk, the International Monetary Fund’s resident representative in Russia.

    Reuters Jan 31, 2012

6) Integration means

Integration occurs when separate people or things are brought together, like the integration of students from all of the district’s elementary schools at the new middle school, or the integration of snowboarding on all ski slopes.

You may know the word differentiate, meaning “set apart.” Integrate is its opposite. When you integrate things, you bring them together. So integration is the act of doing just that, like the integration of African-American students into mixed-race schools after segregation was outlawed in the 1950s, or the integration of computers in businesses that had previously only used paper-based record-keeping.

  • Companies throughout the region seeking to expand are using the three-nation Andean integration as a “platform” for raising the needed funds, Cordoba said.

    BusinessWeek Feb 2, 2012

  • “Clearly, whatever integration is done would be able to be applied elsewhere,” he said.

    Reuters Feb 2, 2012

  • He will be responsible for affiliation operations and integration between Swedish and Providence.

    Seattle Times Feb 1, 2012

  • Structurally there is no advance on “Edward II” in exposition, integration of action, or catastrophe.

    Thorndike, Ashley H.

Day 4: Vocabulary

1) impassive means:

Someone who doesn’t seem to react — who is always “taking a pass” in the conversation of life can be described as impassive.

Impassive is tricky, as it sounds it should be the opposite of passive. It’s not, though. The fact is you can be passive and impassive at the same time. When a passive person gets passed over for a promotion at work, their face might remain impassive upon hearing the news.

  • Mr. Warburton wheeled and came back to the fireplace, looking hungrily down at my lord’s impassive countenance.

    Heyer, Georgette

  • Mr. De Niro looked at him, impassive but mirroring.

    New York Times Jan 10, 2012

  • As he looks on, impassive, the great basso rings out— “If heaven denies thee aid, seek it from hell.”

    Le Fanu, Joseph Sheridan

  • A couple of impassive policemen appeared to be acting as referees.

    Hay, Ian

2) assuage means:

If you assuage an unpleasant feeling, you make it go away. Assuaging your hunger by eating a bag of marshmallows may cause you other unpleasant feelings.

The most common things that we assuage are fears, concerns, guilt, grief, anxiety, and anger. That makes a lot of sense — these are all things we seek relief from. The word comes from Old French assouagier, from the Latin root suavis, “sweet” — think of adding a bit of honey to something unpleasant. A word with a similar meaning is mollify.

  • Those concerns, however, were assuaged after attending several of Porter’s games in person. 

    Washington Post Dec 27, 2011

  • Mr. Corzine testified that Ms. O’Brien assuaged any concerns that MF Global had been improperly using customer cash.

    New York Times Dec 20, 2011

  • The two companies earlier on Tuesday said they offered more concessions to assuage European authorities’ antitrust concerns over their proposed $9 billion merger.

    Reuters Dec 13, 2011

  • To help assuage her grief, Cail started volunteering in nursing homes.

    Seattle Times Nov 22, 2011

3) delineate means:

Though you pronounce it duh-LIN-ee-ate, there is a “line” in the middle of delineate. This might help you remember that to delineate is to outline and define something in detail or with an actual marking of lines and boundaries.

When you create an outline for a paper it usually summarizes what you will detail later. You delineate the sections, or mark the heading lines, and when you write the details, you delineate the subject of each heading. So, to delineate is both to mark lines and to fill in the lines. Using a fence to divide properties or a carpet to claim your side of the bedroom also is a way to delineate, or mark, physical boundaries.

  • In this search the lines of magnetic force, which he had so often delineated in iron filings, came to his aid.

    Garnett, William

  • Cruelly delineating someone’s physical characteristics barely qualifies as gossip.

    Slate Dec 5, 2011

  • The subtlety of his analysis is wonderful, and the shades of character are delineated by slight but always telling strokes.

    Phelps, William Lyon

  • A few years ago not many persons knew from personal knowledge how extremely inaccurately the chain of Mont Blanc was delineated.

    Whymper, Edward

4) sordid means:

Describe a person’s actions as sordid if they are so immoral or unethical that they seem dirty. Think of the worst parts of a bad soap opera!

Sordid comes from the Latin word sordes “dirt.” Something that is filthy or run down such as a neighborhood or someone’s living conditions can be called sordid, but it is usually used figuratively to mean immoral or dishonest. If you want to hear the sordid details of someone’s actions, it’s because they were extremely dishonest or sexually immoral and also because they were supposed to be kept a secret.

  • He effected a sweeping reform without appealing to any sordid or sanguinary motive.


  • On Football: At the end of a sordid affair, Ohio State comes away embarrassed butA cheap eats smackdown: New York vs.

    Washington Post Dec 21, 2011

  • Compound sentence: Many people still belittle business, calling it humdrum routine and sordid money-making, but this view needs revising.

    Buhlig, Rose

  • Sordid surroundings have the sad power of making some lives sordid too.

    Cholmondeley, Mary

5) sublime means:

In common use, sublime is an adjective meaning “awe-inspiringly grand, excellent, or impressive,” like the best chocolate fudge sundae you’ve ever had.

You might describe a spine-tingling piece of music as “a work of sublime beauty.” With the, the word also functions as a noun meaning “something that strikes the mind with a sense of grandeur or power”: “Never need an American look beyond his own country for the sublime and beautiful of natural scenery,” wrote Washington Irving. The beauty of music or nature can be awe-inspiring, but sublime is also useful for describing everything from an impressive serve in tennis to a jaw-droppingly good taste sensation.

  • I would have Science first sublimed into Philosophy, and then kindled by Religion into a burning flame.

    Myers, F. W. H. (Frederic William Henry)

  • It was still enough to justify Mr. Levi’s sublime comparison.

    Le Fanu, Joseph Sheridan

  • Farewell, Macready; moral, grave, sublime; Our Shakespeare’s bland and universal eye Dwells pleased, through twice a hundred years, on thee.


  • Rich in saving common-sense, And, as the greatest only are, In his simplicity sublime.


Day 3: Vocabulary

1) algorithm means:

Whether you are doing simple multiplication or a complicated calculus problem, you must use a predetermined set of rules, called an algorithm, to solve it. An algorithm includes a finite number of steps to solve any given problem.

The word algorithm has an unusual backstory. It seems the 9th Century Persian mathematician Al-Khwārizmī wrote about calculations, and when his work was translated into Latin 300 years later, his name was somehow incorporated into the name of the process as Algoritmi. This got confused with the Greek word for number, arithmos, leading to the evolution of the word as we know it. It’s a mish-mash, ironic for a word that stands for a rather rigid set of rules.

  • He doesn’t like the term “artificial intelligence,” but that’s what he’s talking about — an algorithm that keeps learning, growing and improving its performance.

    BusinessWeek Jan 31, 2012

  • Finding the best solution requires computational power and advanced algorithms.

    US News Jan 30, 2012

  • In addition, Makeig and others developed better algorithms—in particular, independent component analysis.

    Scientific American Jan 27, 2012

  • So far 1,400 teams have submitted nearly 10,000 algorithms.

    Forbes Jan 25, 2012

2) prone means:

The path of least resistance is where you’ll find prone: it refers to whatever you’re likely to do.

The Latin root of this word is pronare which means to bend forward, and it’s a handy way to remember both meanings. If you tend to wait to start your term paper until the night before it’s due, you are prone to procrastination — you bend toward it. If you stay up so late you fall asleep face down in the book, you are now prone at your desk.

3) satiety means:

The noun satiety means a state of fullness. Eating a huge, delicious meal will give you a satisfying feeling of satiety.

You don’t often hear people using the word satiety in casual conversation. It’s more often a technical term used by nutrition experts when they discuss the diet issues of populations or individual patients. Satiety is a state of being completely full, but the related adjective satiated is much more commonly used to describe someone who has eaten enough. The Latin root of satiety is satis, which means “enough.”

  • He thrust far from him its shadow, satiety; and that still greater pitfall for those who wed in haste, a dissimilarity in habit and thought.

    Hine, Muriel

  • Such findings are in line with what I reported five years ago on lifestyle issues that can affect hunger and satiety signals.

    US News Oct 1, 2010

  • And that, she added, may “reset the offspring’s satiety set point, and make them predisposed to eat more.”

    New York Times Mar 22, 2010

  • There was no difference between them in fat loss, appetite control or measurements of hormones that signal hunger and satiety.

    New York Times Mar 22, 2010

4) incarcerate means:

Use the verb incarcerate when you need to put someone behind bars in a big way, meaning, send them to prison, like those who, after being found guilty of a crime and sentenced, become incarcerated.

The word incarcerate entered the English language in the sixteenth century, tracing back to the Latin word meaning “imprisoned.” If you incarcerate people, that means you imprison them for a predetermined amount of time in a jail, prison, or a detention center. It’s good to know the meaning of incarcerate, but make sure you never get so close to it that you have firsthand knowledge of the word.

  • Santorum said terrorism is a serious threat, but incarcerated U.S. citizens must have access to federal courts.

    Washington Post Jan 9, 2012

  • Mr. Davis was charged, convicted, sentenced and incarcerated for capital murder by the State of Texas after taking someone’s life on Nov. 19, 1977.

    New York Times Jan 4, 2012

  • An article in Monday’s Times looks at efforts by several states to use aspects of military service to help incarcerated veterans.

    New York Times Dec 12, 2011

  • All men who have been incarcerated are just so quiet.


5) put behind bars

  • He was put behind bars at Greece’s biggest prison, Korydallos in Athens.

    Reuters Dec 28, 2011

  • Church was put behind bars when he was just 18, convicted of murder after a drunken fight gone wrong.

    Time Sep 26, 2011

  • Defendants in Egyptian criminal trials are put behind bars during court sessions.

    Reuters Aug 2, 2011

  • He was put behind bars indefinitely for public protection.

    BBC Jul 29, 2011

Day 2: Vocabulary

1) recuperate means:

To recuperate is to get something back that you have lost — could be good health, or money lost in a bad investment. When you recuperate, you heal and recover.

Recuperate comes from the Latin word recuperare “to take back,” so when you recuperate you gain something back that was yours before — health or money. Recuperate is usually something people do after an illness. If you break your knee playing rugby in college, you might go home to recuperate. If you don’t want to sound fancy, just say you’re recovering. It also means to get money back, so you can also try to recuperate your losses by staying in the poker game.

  • A halt was made here, that men and animals might recuperate.

    Headley, Joel Tyler

  • Hazzard’s family said he had been recuperating for a long time from complications following heart surgery.

    Seattle Times Nov 18, 2011

  • Mr. Saleh is in Saudi Arabia recuperating from injuries he sustained in a bombing at the presidential compound more than three months ago.

    New York Times Sep 21, 2011

  • The president remains in Saudi Arabia recuperating from wounds sustained in a June rocket attack on his compound.


2) Recoup means:

To recoup is a kind of recovery: If you lost some money but then made that amount back, you recouped your loss.

When you recuperate, you get better after being sick. And when you recoupsomething, you get better or bounce back after a loss. Businesses that lose money try to recoup it by throwing a sale or cutting their budget. If a runner falls behind in a race but then speeds up to the front of the pack, he’s recouped his lead. In some cases this word also means “to reimburse.”

  • Meanwhile, pharmaceutical manufacturers are backing away from making new antibiotics, arguing that resistance is undermining compounds too quickly for them to recoup their costs.

    Nature Feb 1, 2012

  • “Death Rally” recouped Remedy’s development costs in three days.

    Forbes Feb 1, 2012

  • Groupon slid as much as 24 percent before recouping losses.

    BusinessWeek Jan 31, 2012

  • In all likelihood, the store recouped its investment almost immediately.

    New York Times Jan 24, 2012

3) augmented means:

Something augmented has been made stronger or bigger: an augmented pension has been increased.

Ever read a Popeye comic? When Popeye eats spinach, he gets augmented strength: he’s a lot stronger, with bulging cartoon muscles. Anything that is augmented is stronger or bigger in some way. In sports, players are augmented by illegal performance-enhancing drugs. A car can be augmented by customizations. Computers are augmented by adding fancy new programs to them. When something is augmented, it’s better than before.

  • Computer engineers, in high demand but short supply, can command six-figure salaries right out of college, augmented by signing bonuses and equity or stock options.

    New York Times Jan 24, 2012

  • “This work combines projects in building sensors and instrumentation with novel user interfaces such as mobile augmented reality,” he says.

    Forbes Jan 22, 2012

  • At some point, perhaps even “augmented reality” will become a part of future educational offerings?

    Forbes Jan 19, 2012

  • Now he is augmented, set free, and given to all.

    Harvey, James Clarence

4) shackles means:

Handcuffs are shackles. So are those leg irons some prisoners wear when they appear in court. In other words, a shackle is a restraint, either physical or psychological, that restricts movement.

We generally think of shackles as some sort of heavy metal cuff that is used to keep prisoners in check. But shackles don’t have to be physical. Ignorance can be a shackle, so can an abusive family member, or the economy. In those cases, shackles are an external force that keep you from doing or being everything you want to. You can’t see those shackles, but they can be every bit as confining as the metal cuffs.

  • Critics say the labor market is shackled by complex and rigid agreements on collective bargaining, statutory redundancy payments and temporary contracts.

    Reuters Jan 18, 2012

  • In they shuffled, 21 men accused of terrorism and murder, hands shackled, eyes tracing the floor.

    New York Times Jan 7, 2012

  • Shackled detainees were lined up against a wall, gazing downward as officials outlined their crimes.

    New York Times Jan 7, 2012

  • Shenkman wore an orange prison jumpsuit and his hands and legs were shackled.

    Washington Post Jan 4, 2012

5) mutilated means:

If you describe something as mutilated, it has been disfigured or maimed. After a disaster, it can sometimes be hard to identify the mutilated bodies.

The adjective mutilated is a gory word that’s good for describing maimed or injured bodies. When something’s mutilated, it’s often harmed in such a way that it’s no longer recognizable. A mutilated face might be cut so badly that you can’t identify who it belongs to, and a mutilated arm could be crushed so terribly that it no longer looks like an arm. The Latin root mutilare literally means “with a part cut off.”

  • The ancient social system was mutilated; part of it was already broken down.

    Thomson, Basil

  • Books were forged entire, others were mutilated, and some suppressed and put out of sight.

    Reber, George

  • Hegelianism had closed the eyes of human understanding; Positivism had mutilated and crippled its activities.

    Cunningham, Francis A. (Francis Aloysius)

  • In addition to other burdens, Babylonia supplied each year 500 mutilated boys to Darius.

    Duncker, Max

Day 1: Vocabulary

1) soothsayer means :

A soothsayer is someone who can foretell the future. If the convincing soothsayer at the state fair tells you you’ll soon meet someone tall, dark, and handsome, you’ll probably keep your eye out for someone who fits that description.

A fortune teller is also known as a soothsayer, or someone who claims to be able to predict the future. Long ago, a soothsayer might have been considered a useful consultant, even for a government, but today soothsayers are more likely to be scoffed at. Still, there are many soothsayers who have successful businesses telling people’s fortunes and giving advice. Soothsayer comes from the Old English word for “truth,” combined with “say,” together meaning “an act of speaking the truth.”

2) idolatry means:

Idolatry means the worship of images as if they were gods. Many religions prohibit idolatry, some even to the extent of forbidding any representational objects in houses of worship.

Idol sits at the head of the word idolatry. If you worship––or even just look up to––a person or a thing, you are said to idolize them. For some modern idolaters, money is their idol, while for others it is celebrities and for still others their jobs.

3) flutter means to:

Flutter means to move back and forth rapidly. Flags flutter in the wind. Leaves flutter to the ground. Flutter also exists as a noun—you might feel a flutter in your heart when you’re excited.

To remember flutter, think of the children’s rhyme, “See the butterfly flutter by.” Flutter is often paired with “flit,” to describe the way that birds and insects fly––they flit and flutter. It can also be used to describe indecision—someone who can’t make up their mind might flutter between two choices.

4) vexed means :

Vexed means “difficult and much debated.” If your family is having trouble coming to an agreement about where to go on vacation next summer, your holiday trip has become a vexed issue.

When people can’t resolve an issue or find a solution, it is a vexed problem — one that’s become complicated because of differing and probably strong opinions. Vexed can also describe being irritated. If you borrowed your sister’s car without asking permission, and if she had a fancy way of putting things, she might tell you she’s incredibly vexed with you right now.

5) unrequited means:

Unrequited is used almost exclusively in the context of romantic love. If you love someone and they don’t love you back––that, my friend, is a case of unrequited love.

Unrequited love is so painful, most people feel they are the first person in history to experience it, but the word unrequited has in fact been around since the 1520s, when it was invented, like many good words, to talk about money. It derived from re- ‘back’ + the Middle English quite ‘pay up.’

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